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Title: The w/w+ somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) of Drosophila melanogaster for detecting antigenotoxic activity
Authors: Gaivão, Isabel O Neill de Mascarenhas
Ferreira, João
Sierra, Luisa María
Keywords: DNA damage
Issue Date: 12-Mar-2020
Citation: Gaivão et al (2020)
Abstract: Genotoxicological studies are emerging as fundamental for knowing the hazards to our genome, to our health. Drosophila melanogaster is one of the preferable organisms for toxicological research considering its metabolic similarities (viz. on dietary input, xenobiotic metabolizing system, antioxidant enzymes and DNA repair systems) to mammals. Accordingly, somatic mutation and recombination tests (SMARTs) of D. melanogaster are fast and low-cost in vivo assays that have shown solid results evaluating genotoxicity. The w/w+ SMART uses the white (w) gene as a recessive marker to monitor the presence of mutant ommatidia (eye units), indicating the occurrence of point mutations, deletions, mitotic recombination or/and nondisjunction. Additionally, several studies used SMARTs to assess antigenotoxicity, with some using the w/w+ SMART. We reviewed the state of the art of the w/w+ SMART used for antigenotoxicity analysis, focusing on published results, aiming to contribute to the conception of a reliable protocol in antigenotoxicity. As such, genotoxic agents with known action mechanisms, as streptonigrin (oxidative stress inducer), were used as a genotoxic insult for proving the antigenotoxic effects of natural substances (e.g. seaweeds), demonstrating the presence of antimutagens in their composition. These antigenotoxicity studies are crucial for promoting preventive measures against environmental genotoxics that affect humans daily.
Description: Over the years, many investigations in DNA damage and DNA repair mechanisms were made, in vitro and in vivo, aiming to know our environment and thus identifying the harmful compounds to our genome, to our health, leading to preventive actions such as prohibiting the commercialization of certain drugs, construction materials, foods and drinks.
Peer Reviewed: yes
Document Type: Book Chapter
Appears in Collections:DGB - Capítulo ou Parte de Livro

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